Managing Production Orders

The Production Order defines the finished good to be produced, the location where production will take place, the date and time of production, and the quantity of components and resources required. The Production Order also defines the sequence of operations to be performed and the costs of finished goods. It is a vital part of the production process.


There are four stages of a Production Order in DEAR.

  • Planning – Component and resource availability is checked, and resource capacity is allocated. Authorising the order allocates resource capacity and confirms the Release date in order for the finished good to be completed on time. 
  • Release – Releasing an Order allocates components to the order. If transfer orders and replenishment are set to automatic, Release will generate transfer orders and purchase orders for out of stock components. 
  • Work in Progress – The order is split into Production Runs, and production operations are carried out. Produced items are put away.
  • Complete – All items have been produced and put away.


Prerequisites


Table of Contents


Production Process Customisation Settings

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Parts of the production process can be set to either manual or automatic. This can be configured in Settings → General Settings → Purchase Process Customisation



Stock Transfer is Manual/Automatic

  • Automatic: when a Production Order is released, Transfer Orders from the connected warehouse (see Logistics Path) to the Production Order location are automatically created for components. Transfer Orders must be completed manually by the user.  
  • Manual: the user must manually create and complete Transfer Orders for the out-of-stock components.         


NOTE: Purchase orders will be automatically created only when the supplier is indicated for this component in the product (Inventory → Product → Suppliers tab). See Adding suppliers to a product for more information.


Purchase Order Replenishment is Manual/Automatic

  • Automatic: when a Production Order is released with an out-of-stock component, a Purchase Order is generated for the component with delivery to the connected warehouse. 
  • Manual: the user must manually create and complete Purchase Orders for the out-of-stock components.   


Create Production Order

  • Via Smart Reordering: Production Order can be created via the Smart Reordering function on the Reorder suggestions page. 
  • When Sales Order is authorised: Production Order is created when a Sales Order for a finished good is authorised. Choosing this setting makes two more settings appear (described next). 


Create Production Order in status

If Create Production Order is set to When Sales Order is authorised, this setting will be visible. Created Production Orders can have the status: 

  • Draft – the user must manually Authorise and Release the Production Order. 
  • Planned – resource capacity is planned and allocated (see Capacity Planner). The user must manually Release the Production Order. 
  • Released – resource capacity is planned and allocated, and stock components are allocated. The Production Order will be added to the Scheduler


Produce

If Create Production Order is set to When sale order is authorised, this setting will be visible. The setting defines the quantity that should be produced in the created Production Order. There are three options:

  • Produce quantity required in sales: Production Order quantity is the same as Sales Order quantity. No other product availability or settings are taken into account. 
  • Produce quantity required in sales and maintain minimum stock level quantity: Production Order quantity is calculated as: Sales Order quantity - (Minimum Before Reorder + Reorder Quantity + On Order - Available). Even if Availability is negative, it is considered in formula and added to the quantity to produce.
  • Produce difference between available quantity and quantity required in sales to cover a shortage: Production Order quantity is calculated as: Available - Quantity in Sales Order (negative availability is considered as 0). 


NOTE: Availability is calculated from:

1. The Reorder level set up for the product at the Shop floor location. In case if Reorder level is not set up, then Minimum Before Reorder and Reorder Quantity set up in the product document header are considered. See Low Stock Reorder for more information on Reorder levels.

2. The Minimum Before Reorder specified for set up in General Settings → Purchase process customisation. In case if this setting is set to Every location, then Availability is calculated (summed) for all locations. If this setting is set to Product, then Availability is calculated (summed) for Shop Floor and Retail locations only.


Planning the Production Order

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Creating or generating a Production Order is the first step of the planning process. Production orders can only be created for products with a Production BOM. Production Orders can be generated in three ways:

  • manually
  • through a Sales Order (a sales order is authorised for a finished good)
  • via Smart Reordering.


Planning the Production Order finalises which components and resources are needed, checks that the required components and resources are available and works out how long the order will take to produce. 


Finished goods (from Production or Assembly) can be included as components in a Production Order. When a Production Order is authorised (planned) for a finished good that contains produced components, the nested Production Orders will also be created and authorised. See Capacity planning for nested Production Orders below for more information. 


NOTE: Assembly Orders are not created automatically upon Production Order authorisation. If a Production Order/Production BOM contains assembled components, these must be assembled manually by the user so the Production Order can be completed.


  1. To create an order manually, go to Production → New → Production Order. To finish planning a Production Order that has been generated by the system, go to Production → Production Orders and select the required order from the list. 
  2. Fill in the document header fields. See Detailed information on Production Order fields below. SKU, Product Name, Work In Progress Account, Finished Goods Account and Quantity are required fields. 
  3. Select whether Capacity Calculation will take place from Planned date forward or from Required date backward. See Capacity Calculation below for a detailed explanation of how this will affect scheduling.
  4. Released Date will be calculated and filled in automatically from the Capacity Calculations.



  5. The next step is to specify the components for the Production Order. Upon clicking the Load Production BOM button, the Production Order tab displays the Production BOM set up for the finished good to be produced in DEAR Inventory.
  6. The operation duration and quantity of the components and resources are calculated to produce the quantity of finished goods specified in the Order Details → Quantity field.
  7. Quantities of resources and components in the Production Order can be edited, including adding or removing components and resources for Draft, Planned and Released Orders. 
  8. Costs and operation cycle duration are calculated automatically. 
    • NOTE: In the Planning stage, costs for components will be estimated using Average Cost; however, when the order is executed, the picked component cost will be used according to your costing method.
  9. DEAR checks the availability of the components. Checking of availability is executed by the following rules:
    1. Availability is first checked in the Shop floor location specified in the Production Order (components could be left over from previous orders).
    2. Availability is then checked in the Warehouse location connected to the Shop floor location according to the Logistics Path (if Shop floor location and Warehouse location are the same object, only one check is performed). 
    3. The available number includes items at the Shop floor, Warehouse, In Transit (to these locations), and On Order (to these locations).
    4. If neither location has the components in stock, the component is listed as not available.
    5. NOTE: Components do not need to be available for a Production Order to be planned.
  10. Click Authorise to finish this stage.



Capacity Calculation (Resource Allocation)

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The process of calculation considers the following factors:

  • the minimum available capacity of the resource in the operation
  • the cycle duration of the operation from the Production BOM
  • the quantity of the resource required for the operation
  • operations must take place on sequential days (not separated by a working day)
  • the lead time of the components.


Resources listed in an operation all work in parallel together. This means that if the operation's cycle duration in the Production BOM is 3 hours and 3 resources are used in the operation, all 3 resources must be available for 3 hours every day until the operation is completed. 


Capacity Planning can take place From Planned date forward or From Required by date backward.


From Planned date forward

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From Planned date forward is the method of calculation when the order duration is added to the Planned Date to get the Required by Date: Planned Date + sum of all cycle times of operations in the Production Order. As a result of this calculation, the Required by Date is calculated and set up in the Production Order.


From Required by date backward

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From Required by date backward is the method of calculation when the order duration is subtracted from the Required by Date to get the Planned Date: Required by Date - (sum of all cycle times of operations in the Production Order). As a result of this calculation, the Planned Date is calculated and set up as Planned Date in the Production Order.


Example

A Production Run for 30 components is being planned. The cycle time is 6 hours. Operation Shaping takes place first – the Production BOM specifies that the cycle time duration is 6 hours and 15 components are produced per cycle. Two cycles (12 hours) are required to shape 30 widgets. 


3 Resources are required for this operation: Machine 1, Machine 2, Machine 3. 


Resources listed in an operation all work in parallel together, so all 3 machines must be available for 6 hours that day.


How many days will it take to shape 30 components? As From Required by date backward is chosen for Capacity Calculation, we need to calculate the available capacity of each resource per each date starting from the Required by Date.


  1. The available capacity for the Required by Date (Tuesday) is:
    • Machine 1 – 6 hours
    • Machine 2 – 3 hours
    • Machine 3 – 8 hours.
  2. Machine 1 and Oven 3 are available for 6 hours, but Machine 2 is not. We do not have enough resource to schedule our Order today. We then look backwards to the previous day.
  3. The available capacity for the Required by Date – 1 (Monday) is:
    • Machine 1 – 6 hours
    • Machine 2 – 16 hours
    • Machine 3 – 16 hours.
  4. All three machines are available for 6 hours, and resources can be allocated today for one cycle duration, making 15 components. We still have another 15 components to allocate resources for in order to finish the Production Order. 
  5. The next day back is Sunday, and then Saturday. This resource is not set up to work on the weekend, so we look back to the next available day. 
  6. The available capacity for the next working day back (Friday) is:
    • Machine 1 – 8 hours
    • Machine 2 – 12 hours
    • Machine 3 – 12 hours.
  7. All three machines are available for 6 hours and resources can be allocated today for one cycle duration, making 15 components. This finishes our Production Run. 
  8. Thus, the Production Run, which in fact occupies 12 hours, already occupies 5 days.


Capacity calculation for nested Production Orders

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A Production BOM can contain semi-finished products that are Production BOM products themselves. There can be several hierarchical levels of a Production BOM, meaning that the final finished product can contain a series of nested semi-finished products. Production Orders for nested semi-finished products are created and planned (resource capacity is calculated) automatically when the top-level order is authorised.


Semi-finished products Production Orders are created in the same location as the finished good Production Order. Completed semi-finished products should be put away to either the Shop floor location of the top-level order or the connected warehouse location. 


These Production Orders are displayed in the Related Orders tab of the top-level finished good (described below). Orders for nested Production Orders are created with the following properties:

  1. Status of the order is Planned.
  2. Required by Date of the nested product = Release Date of the finished product Production Order. 
    • Since the Release date for the finished product Production Order is not confirmed (release of this order is not done), it is calculated from the default release date for the finished product Production Order. It is calculated the same as for the top-level production order.
  3. Timelines for semi-finished products Production Orders are automatically calculated by the From Required by date backward method if the Required by Date is available in the top-level Production Order. Timelines are calculated for each order separately. The timelines for the finished product Production Order is the sum of all Production Order timelines for the semi-finished products. 


Release of semi-finished products Production Orders should be executed manually. This will create related orders (Stock Transfer, Purchase Orders) necessary for that order. These created orders are not visible in the Related Orders tab of the top-level finished product. 


In Capacity Planner, if one semi-finished product Production Order is re-planned, all other orders including the finished product Production Order are not re-planned. The user will have to go to the Scheduler and check that any problems caused by the re-planning are resolved. 


Releasing the Production Order

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Next, the Production Order is verified before it is passed to production (Released). At this stage, resources have been allocated in the Capacity Planner, but components have not yet been allocated. 

  1. Release date is the date when the components and resources must be available for production. By default, it is automatically set from capacity calculations, however, it can be manually overwritten. 
  2. Click Release to initiate allocation of components.
  3. (If Transfers and Replenishment are set to automatic in Purchase Process Settings) The following tasks are created to address the demand in components if there are not enough components at the Shop floor location. Tasks can be viewed in the Related Orders tab (see Related Ordersbelow for detailed information on how these tasks are created):
    • Purchase Orders for the replenishment of out of stock components
    • Transfer Orders for movements from Warehouse to Shop floor.
  4. If Transfers and Replenishment are set to manual in General Settings, the user will have to create Transfer Orders and Purchase Orders manually for out of stock components.



  5. Releasing the Production Order will cause the +Run button to appear, allowing the order to be split into Production Runs (see below). If you do not need to split the order, you will make one Production Run for the entire order. 


Related Orders (Replenishment and Transfers)

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The Related Orders tab displays all orders created for this Production Order. It contains all tasks created to address the demand in components for the order. 


NOTE: If Purchase Process settings are set to Manual, Transfer Orders and Purchase Orders must be generated manually. 



If Transfers and Replenishment are set to auto in Purchase Process settings (described above), tasks are created upon Release of the Production Order and are created according to these rules:

  1. Availability is first checked in the Shop floor location specified in the Production Order. If there are components in this location, they are allocated to the Production Order. 
    • If the Shop floor location and Warehouse location are the same object, the Warehouse location is checked, and components in the Warehouse location are allocated to the Production Order. No transfer order is required.
  2. If there are not enough components available in the Shop floor location, availability is then checked in the Warehouse location connected to the Shop floor location according to the Logistics Path. A Transfer Order is generated to move the components from the Warehouse to the Shop floor.
  3. If there are not enough components available in the Shop floor or Warehouse, a Transfer Order is generated to move the components from the Warehouse to the Shop floor. The system then creates a Purchase Order to replenish components in the Warehouse.


Splitting a Production Order into Production Runs

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A Production Order can be split to several Production Runs to split up manufacturing operations once the order has been released. Production Runs can be completed in any order.


A Production Run is a batch run for the Production Order. When Production Order manufacturing takes a lot of time, or a lot of items should be produced, it is recommended to split the order to smaller parts for better production management and control. 


If you do not need to split the order, you will make one Production Run for the entire order. 


  1. Click the + Production Run button.



  2. This will open a pop-up window. Press + Production Run to add a line in the table. At least one Production Run must be added. The Production Order number will be assigned sequentially and automatically. Enter the Quantity to Produce for the Production Order.
    • If the total of Production Run quantities is more than the Quantity to Produce for the Production Order, the order is updated automatically, and more is produced. 
    • If it is less, then the Production Order should be Marked as Completed (see below) when no more production will take place – thus, the system will know that we are not going to produce the rest.
  3. Click Run to close the window and create the Production Run(s).



Carrying out a Production Order

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Once an order is released, the Production Run tabs will be visible. 


  1. Select a Production Run tab to begin. 
  2. Operations become available according to their sequence number. Select an operation from the left-hand menu. 
  3. Click Auto Pick to issue components from your inventory or Scan to add items to the operation using a barcode scanner. This will show component availability. Ensure any required Transfer Orders or Purchase Orders have been completed for out of stock components before continuing.
    • NOTE: It is possible to add components and resources, or change component/resource quantity, at this stage.
    • NOTE: Labour & Overheads will be filled in automatically (from your Resource costs) once production begins. 
  4. Press Start to begin the Operation. This changes the Production Order status to Work in Progress and autofills the Start Date for the Production Run.



  5. This executes accounting transactions: the costs of operations are moved from inventory accounts to the work in progress account.



  6. The user can edit the quantity of components and resources to reflect what was actually used during production. When finished, the user marks the operation as Complete, and the next operation in the sequence becomes available to carry out. If component quantities/costs differ from picked quantities, accounting transactions are updated to reflect this. 
  7. Repeat for each operation in the sequence until the Production Order is finished.


Completing a Production Order

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There are two ways that a Production Order is considered to be completed:

  • Every Production Run of the Production Order is completed, and the required quantity of finished goods has been produced.
  • The Production Order is completed early, by selecting Mark as Completed


A Production Order can also be stopped by pressing Undo (Order information is kept, all transactions/tasks are reversed, order status is reset to Draft) or Void (Order is cancelled, and all transactions/tasks are reversed).


Put Away finished goods

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When all operations in the Production Run are completed, the Put Away action can be executed. Put Away is the process of taking products from the production location and putting them into the most appropriate location (retail location, storage location, shop floor location for further production operations).


  1. Go to the Put Away tab of the Production Run. 
  2. Select a Put Away location. By default, the Shop floor location is selected, but any location can be selected from the dropdown. 
  3. Enter the Completion Date and click Complete (WIP is credited, Finished Goods is debited).
  4. When all products are put away, the Production Order gets the Completed status. 


NOTE: Put Away for Production Orders based on semi-finished components should be executed only to the Shop floor location of the parent Production Order or warehouse connected to the Shop floor location.



Mark as Completed

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Using Mark as Completed is only possible if there are no Production Runs currently in progress (at least one operation has started, and all operations have not been completed). All not started Production Runs should be voided, so it is possible to complete the Production Order.



Detailed information for Production Order fields

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Fields marked with an asterisk (*) are mandatory.


Location*

Select the production location. You can select any location that is defined as a Shop floor.

  • The Location field will be pre-filled with the Shop floor location connected by the Logistics Path to the Retail location if the Production Order is initiated by a Sales Order. 
  • The Location field will be pre-filled with the default Shop floor location if the Production Order is initiated manually. 


SKU* 

A mandatory drop-down field with search ability for product SKU input. All finished goods which have a Production BOM are listed. If the order is built from a Sales Order or Smart Reordering reorder suggestion, the field is pre-filled with the finished good to be produced SKU.


Product Name* 

A mandatory drop-down field with search ability for finished good name input. All finished goods which have a Production BOM are listed. If the order is built from a Sales Order or Smart Reordering reorder suggestion, the field is pre-filled with the finished good to be produced name. The name is autofilled when the SKU is selected.


Work in Progress*

Select an account from the drop-down field for WIP. This account will be credited when Production begins and debited when Production is complete.


Finished Goods Account*

Select an account from the drop-down field for the Finished Goods. This account will be credited when Production is complete.


Quantity* 

Quantity of finished good to be produced. 


Maximum Quantity

The auto-calculated field is used to calculate the maximum number of finished goods that can be produced with the available inventory in the specified location. 


Capacity Calculation* 

Select whether Capacity Planning takes place From Planned date forward or From Required by date backward. If From Planned date forward is selected, the Planned Date field is displayed under the Capacity Calculation field. If From Required by date backward is selected, then the Required By Date is displayed under the Capacity Calculation field. See Resource Allocation (Capacity Planning) for more details of how this works. 

  • From Planned date forward is the method of calculation when the order duration is added to the Planned date to get the Required by Date: Planned date + sum of all cycle times of operations in the Production Order. As a result of this calculation, the Required by Date is calculated and set up in the Production Order.
  • From Required by date backward is the method of calculation when the order duration is subtracted from the Required by Date to get the Planned Date: Required by Date - (sum of all cycle times of operations in the Production Order). As a result of this calculation, the Planned Date is calculated and set up as Planned Date in the Production Order.


Planned Date

When the From Planned date forward method is selected in the Capacity Calculation field, the Planned date field becomes mandatory. When From Required by date backward is set in the Capacity Calculation field, this field is auto-filled with the calculated date.


The Planned date defines when replenishment for this exact production order should be started, i.e. this is the date when the system needs to create Transfer and Purchase Orders for the components to deliver them to the Shop floor in time to start production order execution.


The Planned Date influences:

  • scheduling of the planned Production Orders (not released) in the Scheduler (planned view, coming soon)
  • the date for the creation of replenishment orders (Stock Transfer, Purchase).


Required by Date 

When the From Required by date backward method is selected in the Capacity Calculation field, the Required by Date date field becomes mandatory. In case if the order is built from a Sales Order, the field contains the Required by Date set in the Sales Order. However, the date can be edited. When From Planned date forward is set in the Capacity Calculation field, this field is autofilled with the calculated date.


Released Date

This is a date selection field. By default, it is filled with the calculated date: 

  • From Planned date forward: Planned Date + the critical path among lead times of components
  • From Required by Date backward: Required by Date - (sum of all cycle times of operations in the Production Order).


The Release date is the date when the resource becomes available for production. It is the date when components should be delivered to the production location so production can begin. It is calculated based on the time needed to deliver the components. The Release Date can't be prior to the Planned Date. If all components are available in stock when the Production Order is created, Planned date = Release date, because no replenishment will take place. 


The Release Date influences:

  • scheduling of the released not started Production Orders in the Scheduler 
  • shipment Required by Date in the authorised but not sent Transfer Order
  • Required by Date in the Purchase Orders.


Completion Date

This read-only field is filled automatically when the Production Order is completed.


Quantity in Production 

A read-only field filled automatically with the number of finished goods that are in the process of production in the Production Runs. It is the sum of all quantities in all Production Runs where at least one operation is started.


Quantity to Produce

A read-only field filled automatically with the number of products left to produce. It is calculated as: Quantity - sum of all put away finished goods from all Production Runs.


Quantity Put Away

A read-only field filled automatically with the number of products that are put away for all Production Runs.


Quantity Ready to Put Away 

A read-only field filled automatically with the number of products that have been already produced and are ready to be put away. It is the sum of all quantities from completed Production Runs.


Comments

An optional text input field. The characters limit is 200 symbols.


Print and Email Production Order Documents

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The following documents can be printed and emailed for a Production Order and its Production runs:

  • Production Order
  • Production Order Traveller (a document that communicates the routing steps and schedule for the order)
  • Production Run pick list
  • Production Run receiving note (Put Away document)
  • Product Label (for the finished good).


DEAR allows customisation of all documents. Please see Managing Document & Email Templates for more information.


Production Orders List

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Production Orders list is accessed from Production → Production Orders. The Production Orders list screen allows you to create new orders, consolidate orders, plan and release orders directly. See Production Orders List for more information. 



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